# Exercise 4 hints¶

## Problem 1¶

• Note that the input travel time data is stored in text files when reading in the data.
• Keep columns ‘from_id’,’to_id’,‘pt_r_tt’ and ‘car_r_t’ in the travel time data files
• Join the data using columns ‘from_id’ from the travel time data, and ‘YKR_ID’ in the grid-shapefile
• See hints for joining the travel time data to the grid shapefile from our earlier materials from first period (Geo-Python course): Table join
• Plotting the data takes a while (be patient!)

## Problem 2¶

General steps:

1. Read the files and prepare a single DataFrame where you have travel times for all shopping centers
2. Find out for each row what is the minimum travel time from those shopping centers
3. Find out for each row what is the column name of that shopping center that had the minimum travel time
4. Make maps from the results

### Reading multiple files efficiently¶

Here we are reading multiple files from a folder. We could write the filepaths to all of those files but it is not efficient! Instead, you should use glob() -function from module glob to get a filtered list of those files that you want to read and then read the files by iterating over the list.

Listing and searching for file path names from file system can be done using a specific module called glob.

The glob library contains a function, also called glob, that finds files and directories whose names match a pattern. We provide those patterns as strings: the character * matches zero or more characters, while ? matches any one character.

• We can use this to get the names of all files in the data directory (‘/home/geo/data’):
In [0]: import glob
In [1]: my_files = glob.glob('/home/geo/data/*')
In [2]: print(my_files)
['/home/geo/data/inflammation-08.csv',
'/home/geo/data/inflammation-10.csv',
'/home/geo/data/inflammation-11.csv',
'/home/geo/data/inflammation-06.csv',
'/home/geo/data/inflammation-12.csv',
'/home/geo/data/small-03.csv',
'/home/geo/data/small-02.csv',
'/home/geo/data/inflammation-07.csv',
'/home/geo/data/inflammation-05.csv',
'/home/geo/data/small-01.csv',
'/home/geo/data/inflammation-03.csv',
'/home/geo/data/inflammation-04.csv',
'/home/geo/data/inflammation-02.csv',
'/home/geo/data/inflammation-01.csv',
'/home/geo/data/inflammation-09.csv']

• We can also search for only specific files and file formats. Here, we search for files that starts with the word ‘small’ and ends with file format ‘.csv’:
In [3]: csv_files = glob.glob('/home/geo/data/small*.csv')
In [4]: print(csv_files)
['/home/geo/data/small-03.csv', '/home/geo/data/small-02.csv', '/home/geo/data/small-01.csv']


Now we have successfully filtered only certain types of files and as a result we have a list of files that we can loop over and process.

### Renaming column based on ‘to_id’ value¶

We want to rename our column from pt_r_tt into pt_r_tt_XXXXXXX where XXXXXX is a to_id of our datafile which is identical for every row. How you should proceed this problem is following:

• Extract a single value from to_id column into a variable called destination ==> you might want to use .loc[] functionality of Pandas

• Convert the integer value of destination variable as string

• Rename the pt_r_tt value:

• Parse the new column name where you combine pt_r_tt text and text from destination variable into a new variable called new_name.
• Rename the pt_r_tt column using value from new_name variable. Use data.rename() -function. See lesson 6 materials in GeoPython.

Finding out which shopping center is the closest

We can find out the minimum value from multiple columns simply by applying a .min() function to those columns of a row that we are interessted in:

# Define the columns that are used in the query
value_columns = ['center1', 'center2', 'center3']

# Find out the minimum value of those column of a given row in the DataFrame
minimum_values = row[value_columns].min()


It is also possible to find out which column contains that value by applying .idxmin() -function (see Pandas docs).

# Find out which column contains the minimum value
closest_center = row[value_columns].idxmin()


In order to calculate the results for each row, you can take advantage of the .iterrows() and .loc() -functions in (geo)pandas. See example from Geo-Python course: Lesson 5: Selecting data